Sunday, June 5, 2016

Event 3: Philosophy + Art + Science, Maria Antonia Gonzalez Valerio [May 26th]

For this event, Maria Antonia Gonzalez Valerio was the guest lecturer and she is from the National Autonomous University of Mexico. Her main points of her lecture dealt with asking questions of how art and science work together currently. What was very different about this presentation was the lack of answers as she stated from the get-go that she likes to pose questions but never answer them.

Professor Vesna introducing Maria Valerio
She began by lecturing how neither art nor science are subject to a definition and she shows this by saying art back in ancient Greece is no longer art today, She poses an interesting question of how can art be of importance to science if it cannot contribute to science. I began wondering the same thing, and have been wondering the same thing for quite some time... She gave a hint as to what artists may lack and that is knowledge of the sciences.

Maria Valerio giving her lecture
Like I said, her lecture posed a lot of questions but not a lot of answers, and I'm glad she did that because it really gets the audience thinking on topics that deal with the relevance of art in science.
Hand-stitched art piece used to protest GMOs.
She continued to talk about art and how it can contribute to activism through exhibitions and festivals, performances, labs, and workshops. One of the activism artworks she presented was a hand-stitched fabric used to show that corn was being contaminated and not to eat it. The picture shown above shows a scientist in a lab coat contaminating the corn or "maize" as it is called in Spanish. This art piece is used as a political statement against science in hopes of reforming scientific methods and research in creating genetically modified organisms or GMOs for short.
Myself and Maria Valerio
This event was very interesting as it showed a very political side to the arts and sciences that I have not been exposed to first-hand. I do think that the combination of the two can really help each other not only spread knowledge but also create ethical limitations on what is acceptable behavior in today's society.

Event 2: LASER (Leonardo Art Science Evening Rendezvous) [April 21st]

I attended LASER April  21st as my second event because I thought it would be cool to get a variety of perspectives on the combination of science and art. I do have to say it was quite an enlightening experience. There were 8 speakers and all of them were amazing, but I want to highlight my favorites.

Marco Pinter's Lecture on Appropriation of Choreographic Strategies
Marco Pinter talked about his integration of robotics and dance and it was quite fascinating. A lot of his videos consisted of using robotics in unique ways to show different types of movement. The specific one I enjoyed was Object Permanence in which he used  robotic like sculptures with digital movement to capture a new type of Rube Goldberg machine, if you will, with digital movement being used as the forces that drive the sculptures to move. Together, it brought a new way of seeing digital and physical interact.

Shannon Willis Lecture about her separation from her daughter.
Shannon Willis gave a great speech about her pursuing her career and  how she is separated from her daughter because of it. It gave her inspiration to create a piece of her recording herself while watching videos of her daughter. There is deep connection between her and her daughter that is apparent in the video and I thought it was of great social commentary to show how technology has allowed us to see the world in a virtual way and still allows us to explore emotions that we feel even though they are not face to face interactions.
Toni Dove talking about Lucid Possession 
Finally, Toni Dove talked about her work of Lucid Possession which is a live cinema performance that follows a programmer who becomes famous on the internet but is bogged down by voices in her head. The artistic aspect of this comes from the characters dress which is part robotic and visuals are projected onto the dress.

Professor Vesna and I at the LASER event
This was a very interesting event being able to see all different types of integration of art and science and it gave me a better perspective on how the two combined can create entertainment for others.

Sunday, May 29, 2016

Space and Art

This weeks lecture is very fascinating to me, especially as an engineering major. I've always been excited to work in the Aerospace industry and I'm happy to say I will be doing so once I graduate in 2 weeks. Starting from the basics, Nicolaus Copernicus was fascinated by astronomy and was one of the first to describe our Solar system in which Sun was the center of it. Technology progressed with telescopes making space exploration go to new heights.
God's Eye

Much of space exploration now can be attributed to science-fiction novel and magazine influence, such as contributions fro Chesley Bonestell. These science-fiction fantasies help popularize space exploration and opened up possibilities that space travel could achieve. Popular media, from television to movies, also played a role into space exploration.

The Jetsons
Art was also made to see the what integration it can have in the space programs, such as the Cosmic Dancer by Kathleen Ford. The idea is to see the affects of weightlessness on art when in space. The geometry of the piece allowed for different orientations and angles when viewing in order to achieve different perspectives.

Orbital Debris Progression
Of course, some use space as a way of expression, specifically the harm that is around them. Kathleen Ford talks about how artists are taking an interest in zero-gravity and the feeling of weightlessness. This can be contributed to the heavy burdens of war and destruction ans using zero-gravity as a way to break from the forces that hold people down. Richard Clar uses art to show how space debris can be harmful to future space travel as well as the future state of Earth. His art depicts the debris that is orbiting around Earth, and the pictures are quite concerning seeing all the colored areas that debris circle around.

Whether it is for political statements or encouraging space-exploration, art has influenced space studies in a very progessive manner.


Bonestell, Chesley. "Bonestell - Home." Bonestell - Home. Bonestell LLC, 2016. Web. 29 May 2016. <> 
Clar, Richard. "Projects." Space Art at Art Technologies, a Collaboration between Space Technology and the Arts. Art Technologies, 2005. Web. 29 May 2016. <>. 

Ford, Kathleen. "Dancing on the Ceiling: Art & Zero Gravity Curated by Kathleen Forde : EMPAC Curtis R. Priem Experimental Media and Performing Arts Center : Troy, NY USA." Dancing on the Ceiling: Art & Zero Gravity Curated by Kathleen Forde : EMPAC Curtis R. Priem Experimental Media and Performing Arts Center : Troy, NY USA. RPI, 2010. Web. 29 May 2016. <>. 

Woods, Arthur. "Cosmic Dancer - a Space Art Intervention by Arthur Woods." The Cosmic Dancer Project : Cosmic Dancer Introduction : Arthur Woods. Arthur Woods, 1993. Web. 29 May 2016. <>. 

 Uconlineprogram. "8 Space Intro 1280x720." YouTube. YouTube, 29 May 2013. Web. 29 May 2016. <>. 

Sunday, May 22, 2016

Nanotech and Art

As stated by Professor Gimzewsky, nanotechnology has been around for many centuries and a lot of people do not realize it. Art such as stain glass windows and pottery glaze of 15th Century Italian pottery have been influenced by nanoparticles, giving new light and color to these art forms.

Stained Glass Windows

Nanoparticles have also been used in advancements in medicine, specifically in locating diseases such as cancer. Cancer cells and viruses can be isolated and targeted with the used of nanoparticles allowing easier and noninvasive treatment that doctors can see. There are now new nanoparticles that can help detect the exact location of blood clots! It is amazing how far science has come to help alleviate medical complications and diseases. 

Quantum Dots

Also, technology has been influence by nanoparticles, in particular computer processors. Nanotechnology is being implemented to create computer processors which is a huge breakthrough as computers can now store information and process it at the nanoscale, creating lighter and more efficient devices.

Buckeyball Around the Earth
Of course, there is always the ugly side of things where nanoparticles play harmful roles in our society. Researchers have found that nanoparticles from diesel exhausts play harmful roles in lung diseases, but on the positive side these nanoparticles are being studied as a way to find treatments to those who are genetically disadvantaged to said nanoparticles. Even downsides have there upsides.


Curtin, John. "Art in the Age of Nanotechnology." Art.Base. Art.Base, 5 Feb. 2010. Web. 22 May 2016. <>.

 Li, Jinju. "Findings on Pollution Damage to Human Airways Could Yield New Therapies." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 2 Mar. 2011. Web. 22 May 2016. <>. 
Perry, Caroline. "Researchers at Harvard and MITRE Produce World's First Programmable Nanoprocessor." Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 9 Feb. 2011. Web. 22 May 2016. <>. 

Strait, Julia. "New Nanoparticles Make Blood Clots Visible | The Source | Washington University in St. Louis." The Source. Washington University in St. Louis, 02 Feb. 2011. Web. 22 May 2016. <>. 

 Uconlineprogram. "Nanotech Jim Pt1." YouTube. YouTube, 21 May 2012. Web. 22 May 2016. <>. 

Sunday, May 15, 2016

Neuroscience and Art

This weeks discussion deals with the integration of neuroscience and art, one of my biggest fascinations. I consider brain functionality very complex and intriguing, but the integration of art makes it all the more beautiful showing that our brain is more than just tissue and synapses.

In lecture, Professor Vesna discusses brainbow, as it is a term to describe a process in which individual neurons can be distinguished from other neurons with fluorescent proteins. The above picture displays brainbow and the beauty of neuron activity with color. Our brain is a complex part of our body and this insight of how the brain works through color is very fascinating and shows that neuroscience is not only medical and scientific but also an art form as well.

LSD Visions
Drugs were also used as visual enhancements or visual alterations to create a world that was more photosensitive and open. However, consequences arose as drugs such as LSD and cocaine became more popular. Much more negative side effects unraveled, showing that art can come at a price if abused.

The Art of Neuroscience: Perception is Based on Your Own Brain
Noe proclaims that it is our brain that allows us to see and interpret art that is around us. Depending on how your brain works, art will be viewed differently by others. Furthermore, Max talks about how our memories of the past are greatly shaped by sense of smell and the mood we are in, which are senses controlled by the brain. Hutton discusses the connections between art and the brain and how one influences the other; specifically, he gives an example how films are like memories created in the brain as it touches on our senses of mood, sight, feel, taste, etc. One thing is clear and it is that our brains are extremely powerful and can create these visions that we can interpret as we please. Whether it be dreams, hallucinations, or natural surrounding, our brain gives us the ability to create an exterior world that is unique to us.


Penrose, Roger. "The Third Culture - Chapter 14." The Third Culture - Chapter 14. 1995. Web. 15 May 2016. <>. 

Max, D.T. "Swann’s Hypothesis." The New York Times. The New York Times, 03 Nov. 2007. Web. 15 May 2016. <>. 

Noe, Alva. "Art and the Limits of Neuroscience." Opinionator Art and the Limits of Neuroscience Comments. The New York Times, 4 Dec. 2011. Web. 15 May 2016. <>. 

Hutton, Noah. "Art and Neuroscience: A State of the Union." The Creativity Post. The Creativity Post, 10 Oct. 2012. Web. 15 May 2016. <>. 

 Uconlineprogram. "" YouTube. YouTube, 17 May 2012. Web. 15 May 2016. <>. 

Sunday, May 8, 2016

Biotech and Art

Biotechnology and art have been integrated with each other for many decades due to the evolution of biological studies and technological advances that make it possible to genetically enhance or alter the composition and body of organisms. This week's lecture, Professor Vesna introduced Eduardo Kac who created a genetically modified bunny that gives off a fluorescent color, ie glows in the dark.

Alba, the fluorescent bunny by Eduardo Kac
Technology has created many opportunities for scientists to help find cures for diseases and indicate where diseases are forming. However, there is some ethical and societal backlash against transgenic artists whose goals are to use modified genes to create unique beings. There are criticisms of using such technology for art as very irrational and silly because it is not aiding society in any manner. However, artists counteract and respond by saying doing this is a form of expression, using technology in a different manner that is not necessarily scientific.

There are other negative about genetically modifying organisms such as plants. There are these super weeds that are growing in Iowa that take over farmland and continuously dominate and poison crops to die out. Further research into these super weeds indicate that their genetic mutations could be aided through fertilizers and resistant to weed killers.
A pretty disgusting video of the decomposition of McDonald's foods (the fries are really concerning)

In an even more disgusting example, the above video shows the aging of McDonald's food, specifically the Big Mac and fries. After weeks of aging, the foods showed no signs of mold or decomposition, which brings the following question: what is being put into our foods?

Planet of the Apes
A more romanticized version of the effects of genetic mutation is the film Planet of the Apes. In the original 1968 movie, 3 astronauts become captive on a planet where apes are the rulers and humans are slaves. This can be seen as more a less a commentary of how humans treat animals for their own purposes, but the shoes are now reversed. A lot of backlash of genetic exploration has dealt with animal cruelty and the ethics behind using animals for the betterment of humankind, despite the animals sharing similar genetic characteristics. If these animals are so similar in genetic composition, why do we treat them so poorly and think of them as equal? This topic I feel is one of the most controversial and still needs to be explored more thoroughly as to what boundaries should be drawn without going too far.


Kac, Eduardo. "GFP BUNNY." GFP BUNNY. Kac Web, 2000. Web. 08 May 2016. <>. 

Yeates, Ed. "'Super Weed' Taking Strong Hold in Utah |" 'Super Weed' Taking Strong Hold in Utah | KSL, 08 June 2009. Web. 08 May 2016. <>. 

High, Kathy. "How Did Matilda, Tara and Star Barbie Become Transgenic Rats?" Embracing Animal. Feb. 1995. Web. 08 May 2016. <>.

Stutz, Bruce. "Seed Magazineabout." Wanted: GM Seeds for Study § SEEDMAGAZINE.COM. SEED MAGAZINE, 10 July 2010. Web. 08 May 2016. <>. 

 Uconlineprogram. "5 Bioart Pt1 1280x720." YouTube. YouTube, 18 Sept. 2013. Web. 08 May 2016. <>. 

Sunday, May 1, 2016

Midterm Project: Hologram Umbrella

Check out my midterm project of the Hologram Umbrella. (Psssttt... click Hologram Umbrella... Not this one but the first one...)

Tuesday, April 26, 2016

Event 1: BattleBots!! [April 20th]

So I have been dying to get tickets to see Battlebots, as it is now a TV show on ABC (fun fact, it originally aired on Comedy Central). I was lucky enough to get a free ticket to see the fights, thanks to Professor Dennis Hong. It was so much fun!
Announcement/Recap area for Battlebots
For those who do not know what Battlebots is, it is this awesome competition where people from all over the world compete to see whose killer robot dominates. Despite the violence of it all, a lot of art is implemented in the robot designs. Many designs are attributed to not only the destructive potential but also to look really cool. Take Bronco and Bite Force or example (the pictures below): each of these robots have a unique design that had to not only consider the engineering and science perspectives of the competition but also the aesthetics of looking like an awesome robot. Just like in the robotics lecture, the evolution of robotic technologies is not only within medical technologies but in entertainment, as well.

Bite Force

Yes, it's a bunch of people making robots, that's not art, right? I beg to differ. The art not only comes from the robot itself but the entertainment and enjoyment it brings to people. I was in the audience and met many people from all over (Oklahoma, Canada, Japan, Sweden, the list goes on) and they all came together to cheer on their favorite competitor. It's a community of all people nerding out over the design and destruction of their favorite team's robots. I like to think of it this way, the arena is the canvas, the robots are the colors, and the painters are the robot creators whose designs are made in detail to keep people thinking and excited about their art form.
The arena
Side note, I got to meet the one and only Adam Savage!! You may know him better from Myth Busters. He's a really nice guy and one of the judges for this year's season of BattleBots
The one, the only, Adam Savage!
So yes, BattleBots if a bunch of robots destroying each other, but if you peel the layers back, it is a modern art form within the robotic community that keeps people guessing and excited to more things to come. For those of you curious or still unsure about Battlebots, here is a trailer from last season.

Sunday, April 24, 2016

Human Body and Medical Technologies

Professor Vesna discussed the evolution of X-Rays and MRIs and how that came about to save a lot of lives concerning medical cases of cancer, seizures, strokes, etc. Personally, I have seen the wonders of these machines as they have helped my father detect he had cancer and show my mother's degenerative arthritis eating her knee.
MRI Machine
I find it very odd that machines of such kind in its infancy was considered art and not of use for medical practices. They have clearly been of great use in discovering and exploring different diseases and medical anomalies, and I am forever grateful of the impact it has had on my family.

These new technologies have also been educational to the general public, specifically with the evolution of plastication in which polymers and body tissue are morphed to construct a body art form. This art created by Gunther Von Hagens was originally intended for medical instruction but later became public as an exhibit, showing preserved human bodies to educate the general population. I have personally been to this exhibit many times and it is quite fascinating.

There are also the down sides to medical technologies, for me specifically in cloning and mutation. I will take two movies to go off: The Island and X-Men.

In The Island, there is a group of clones that are held in a reservation and believe the real world is too contaminated with the exception of the island that isn't contaminated. Essentially people that are raffled off to the island are murdered as they are utilized for medical purposed for their real-life counterparts. X-Men deals with mutants, or the people that have special abilities due to their mutated DNA. There is a big ordeal of trying to overthrow the mutants as well as perform research on them for bad purposes. Both of these movies, though clearly fictional, offer a scary future that may come into reality if technology goes into the wrong hands. Many ethical dilemmas can be brought up if technology is used in such a neglecting manner.

Despite these outlooks, medical procedures find itself submerged into the artistic world, as shown by Orlan. She is famous for having reconstructive surgeries as a way to express different art eras and genres. Though I wouldn't personally go through this ordeal, like many reporters say in the documentary, it is a unique art form that combines medical advances and art.

Christophe Luxereau picture of Robotic Knee Implementation


Beatowner. "The Island Trailer." YouTube. YouTube, 29 Sept. 2007. Web. 24 Apr. 2016.

MutleeIsTheAntiGod. "Orlan - Carnal Art (2001) Documentary." YouTube. YouTube, 13 Mar. 2011. Web. 24 Apr. 2016. 

Petersenjak. "X Men (2000) - Trailer 1 HD." YouTube. YouTube, 04 Aug. 2009. Web. 24 Apr. 2016.

Uconlineprogram. "Medicine Pt2." YouTube. YouTube, 21 Apr. 2012. Web. 24 Apr. 2016. 

Von Hagens, Gunther. "Bodyworlds." Bodyworlds. Institute for Plastication, 2006. Web. 24 Apr. 2016.

Sunday, April 17, 2016

Robotics and Art

To be quite honest, I was never really interested in robotics, that is until I became more exposed to the capabilities of what it can be. You would think a mechanical engineer would automatically be into robots, but not me. I was always interested in the thermodynamics, fluids and heat transfer aspects, but I digress. 

Robot saying hi.
This week has given me the opportunity to explore the art behind robotics and what it can do to not only entertain and create but also to better society. A perfect movie example of robots helping humans is Big Hero 6, one of my personal favorite movies.In the movie, an engineering student creates a robot that provides health care. Without going into full detail of the movie, this robot eventually helps fight crime with a team of students. However, there is a part of the movie where the robot goes "evil" and starts to go against orders.

Big Hero 6 Movie Poster
This seems to be a common theme in movies and novels where robots have tendencies of harming society, as stated by Professor Vesna in lecture. Much of our perception of robots are guided by media, which I think is ironic because our computers and phones used to tell us these things are robots, visual and computational ones at that. We are in a very integrated in robotics without knowing it yet we attack it because of the potential dangers it may pose. McNeals interview with Martin Ford about his book Rise of the Robots explored the concerns that humans with have fewer jobs as things become automated. Though I think this is somewhat true, I think technological innovations will bring in more new jobs as technology has been evolving at quite a rapid rate in the past 50 years. There is much that can be done to help people, such as help the blind drive. Professor Dennis Hong, who happen to be my senior design professor, created a car that does so: let's blind people drive. During one of his lectures, he commented that creativity and artistry is needed when solving world problems, and the the end goal should not only be for the purposes of achieving the set goal but also to make an impact on other people's lives. We must look at the good in what robotics can bring and not dwell on the fantasized evil that can emerge. Like I said before, we already use robots in our lives, so why turn on them now?
Cool example of very early implementation of robotics with integration of cams.


McNeal, Marguerite. "Rise of the Machines: The Future Has Lots of Robots, Few Jobs for Humans." Conde Nast Digital. Web. 17 Apr. 2016. 

Technology News. "'The Writer' Automaton." YouTube. YouTube, 17 Apr. 2014. Web. 17 Apr. 2016. 

TED Talks. "Making a Car for Blind Drivers." Dennis Hong. TED Talks, Mar. 2011. Web. 17 Apr. 2016.

Uconlineprogram. "Robotics Pt1." YouTube. YouTube, 15 Apr. 2012. Web. 17 Apr. 2016.

Uconlineprogram. "Robotics MachikoKusahara 1." YouTube. YouTube, 14 Apr. 2012. Web. 17 Apr. 2016. 

Sunday, April 10, 2016

Math and Art

As an engineer, one may make the assumption that I am obssessed only with math and not art. This is definitely false! This week has depicted the integration of math into art and I am relieved that this topic is being covered because I believe math is really under-appreciated by the conscious of many. From lecture, much art is the use of simple geometries that are used to create complex ones and  they all combine mathematical formulas to produce perspective. Take this mobius strip for example: the curvature of this can be defined by mathematical formulas and creates a surface that technically only has one edge and one face making it one of the puzzling yet brilliant pieces of artwork.

Mobius Strip: the curiosity that has only one side and one face.

Maurits Cornelis Escher was one of the artists that explored the mathematical principles of topology, polyhedrons, tesselations, and logic space in order to create works of art that are regarded heavily by mathematicians. Below is one of his pieces of artwork that creates two different perspectives of the same area with a use of a central point.
Up and Down; lithograph 1947

As you can see his use of the vanishing central point to expand views not only creates perspective but creates the artistic illusion of the floor being the ceiling of the same building.

There are even more cool integrations of math that occur in artwork. The use of fractals shows extremely similar processes to that of a PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controller used in engineering design. Both of these essentially create iterations, or repeated processes, that later result in a final product: for the fractals there is repetition of shapes to create a desired pattern, for PID controllers there is repetition of input to continuously adjust output.

Iterative Process of Recursion for Fractals

PID Controller for processes

For a better understanding of what a PID controller does, you can watch this video above.

A modern use of science and art is Nathan Selikoff's sound clock in which the sounds create visual vibrations on a virtually projected clock. This is very inventive because it takes an everyday piece of machinery and creates it into an artform that integrates the science of sound waves.

For me, it is quite clear that there resides a plethora of similarities between art and science through the use of mathematics. HOWEVER, it is clear that we have forgotten the history of how art has developed and create this realm that art is not scientific or mathematical when it clearly is! We need to bring awareness of these similarities and restore creativity in the arts and sciences.


Uconlineprogram. "" YouTube. YouTube, 09 Apr. 2012. Web. 10 Apr. 2016. 

Roy, Peter V. "African Fractals." African Fractals. National Science Foundation. Web. 10 Apr. 2016. 

Smith, Sidney B. "The Mathematical Art of M.C. Escher." The Mathematical Art of M.C. Escher. Platonic Realms, 13 Mar. 2014. Web. 10 Apr. 2016. 

Douglas, Brian. "PID Control - A Brief Introduction." YouTube. YouTube, 13 Dec. 2012. Web. 10 Apr. 2016. 

Selikoff, Nathan. "Nathan Selikoff | Fine Artist Playing with Interactivity, Math, Code." Nathan Selikoff. Web. 10 Apr. 2016. 

Sunday, April 3, 2016

Two Cultures

Upon reading the articles from Snow and other authors, there seems to be a common agreement that there remains a great disparity between science and art and that our current education system is to be the blame for it. Much of the divide comes from the lack of understanding between the two cultures because our schooling drove us toward that manner.

The cultures of art and science are extremely divided at UCLA. As a Mechanical Engineering major and I rarely come into contact with North Campus students. The fact that we as students already label ourselves as North and South campus majors is an eminent divide that causes the disparity between art and science. As said in Lecture, UCLA campus is divided with the arts in the northern part, and sciences in the southern part. Not only is this a structural divide but a cultural one as well, as students fight to legitimize that their major is better. (You should click here for more opinions on North versus South Campus controversy.)

These perspectives on the divide of art and science and how they are implemented on our education system are not eye-opening to me as I have been a victim of the so called "factory system" of education described in the changing education paradigms video. I knew it existed as I constantly battled with school districts when I was younger, fighting for the school to accommodate my needs rather than assimilate myself to the general needs of others. I am really good at math and science and learned at a much faster rate in those subjects. This doesn't mean other students are not smart, they just have different capabilities and learning rates. Students should be able to learn at a rate they can excel and not conform to the standards that schools push children through. Because everyone knows how successful Common Core is doing...
I find myself quite artistic in some aspects as I am an engineering designer by profession. I do think that the creativity that comes with art is needed in sciences because there is too much structure in finding a "correct solution". As Bohm said, scientists must have a creative state of mind, as it will help with challenges and result in out-of-the-box solutions.


TheRSAorg. "RSA ANIMATE: Changing Education Paradigms."YouTube. YouTube, 14 Oct. 2010. Web. 03 Apr. 2016.

Bohm, D. "On Creativity." JSTOR. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Apr. 2016.

Snow, C.P. The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution. New York: Cambridge UP, 1959. Print.

Vesna, Victoria. "Toward a Third Culture: Being In Between." Leonardo. 34 (2001): 121-125. Print.

Wali, Kiran. "Is a ‘science Student’ Smarter than an ‘arts Student’?" The Express Tribune Blog RSS. The Express Tribune, 11 Sept. 2013. Web. 03 Apr. 2016.